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Friday, September 4, 2020

An Overview of Indian Classical Music Forms Ragas and Roots | list of Hindustani ragas in Indian classical music

Forms of Indian Music

Musicians in India can invent numerous musical structures with a Raga and Tala. These structures can either be closed or open. Closed ones are called nibaddha. Open ones are called anibaddha.


➡ Don't forget to check out:- To know more details about list of Hindustani ragas, Click Here.

Indian Classical Music Forms Ragas and Roots -- surfmyindia.com

Anibadha Forms

Alpha–Alpha is the most important anibaddha music. Whether a musician is adroit in his art or not is tested through his alapa. Alapa the most elaborate and most delicate presentation of raga, demands much patience and sensitivity in rendering. In Karnatak music, alapa always precedes the composition. In case of Hindustani music, it may or may not precede the composition.


Dhrupad

It is one of the early types that is surviving. The older ones were known as Dhruva prabandhas, raja Man Singh Tomar of Gwalior and Akbar were great patrons. The 15th and 16th centuries witnessed the finest singers of dhrupad.


Kheyal

The word ‘Kheyal’ is Persian, Its meaning is 'imagination'. Ameer Khusro (13th century) is said to be inventor of Kheyal. Two types of Kheyal are in vogue, the Bada (Large) and theadarang Nyamat Khan (18th century), There are, then, gharanas of Kheyal. The most prominent are four- Gwalior, Agra, Jaipur and Kirana. The first is the oldest and is also considered the ‘mother’ of all other gharanas.


Sangati

It resembles with neraval. Tyagaraja is the slight variation of a phrase of song which is preconceived, Neraval or the bale tan is extensive and is to an exent there and then raga elaboration. As for the ‘name’ goes, it does not exist in the north.


Indian Classical Music Forms Ragas and Roots -- surfmyindia.com

Sargam

The sargam is a world formed of syllables Sa-Re-Ga-Ma in Hindustani Musica. In Karnataka music. It is Kalpana Savra. It is also free rendering and practiced more often in Karnatak Music. Only the note-signatures are used in the raga elaboration and not the meaningful words or nonsense syllables or merely vowels.


Tans

Tans like alpa is anibaddha as they are not pre-composed. In Hindustani music, particularly in instrumental music they are termed as paltas. If it is with libretto, they are bot tans. It may be without libretto.


Tanam

It is found in Karnatak music and is similar to Jode. It is not as wider in its melodic range and movements as jode.


Thumri

It is a closed form and a way of singing very popular in the north. It is a very light form, extremely lyrical. Thumri was extremerly popular in 19th century with its centre at Lucknow. Wajid Ali Shah was a composer of fine thumris. The song Babul mora in Bhairavi raga is said to have been created by him on the eve of his departure from Lucknow.


Tappa

It is a type of singing supposed to have grown from the songs of the camel drivers of North West India. It is romantic in content with very quick cascades and cadences.


Tarana

It is a form which has no meaningful words. Sthayi and Antara are there. It is generally accepted that these syllables are memories of tabla and sitar strokes.


Indian Classical Music Forms Ragas and Roots -- surfmyindia.com

Light Classical Music

Gazal

The origin is Persian. The themes revolve around ‘Love’. Some of the famous exponents are Master nadan, Begum Akhtar, Mehndi Hassan, Gulam Ali, Jagit Singh.


Qawwali

This is a devotional song sung in a group but with a solo voice against a chorus.


Soofiana Kalam

This is highly grammatised and has well set rhythmic structure. This form is popular in Kashmir valley.


Keertan

It literally means ‘to sing the praises of’ is a typically Vashnavaite congregational singing of Bengal. Starting from Chaitanya Deva (1485 - 1533), it blossomed out into many varieties.


Rabindra Sangeet

Rabindranath Tagore used Indian ragas and talas from Indian classical music and has also take ingredients from the folk music Keertans, the bhatiyali and the bauls.


Semi-classical Music

Between classical music and the popular folk and tribal music, there are many regional music’s with less stress on grammar.


Sopana Sangeet

The songs were sung in Kerala on the doorsteps of temple.


Indian Classical Music Forms Ragas and Roots -- surfmyindia.com

Padas or Devaranama

These were sung in Kannada regions by dasas. Dasas were as set up of religious singers of the Madhva faith.


Bhajan

Bhajans are sung throughout the north in the praises of the Lord. Narsi Mehta of Gujarat, Meera the Princes of Mewar, Kabir, Tulsidas are the chief exponents.


Sabadas

The Granth, the story scripture of Sikhs, contains devotional Songs known as sabads in various ragas.


Karnatak Music

The world ‘Karnatak’ was coined by Vidyaranya in the fifteenth century. Karnatak denotes south Indian music distinct from the Hindustani music. This form of music has been influenced greatly by the old Dravidian (Tamil) music.


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